Very simply if an actions consequence cause happiness, then the action is right, if it causes pain, or destroys happiness then the action is wrong. To speak of justice, rights, and desert is to speak of rules of individual treatment that are very important, and what makes them important is their contribution to promoting overall well-being. It also maintains that it is happiness that is key to life 's conquest, and hence happiness that is the determination of right or wrong. Utilitarianism: Overall View Utilitarianism is a philosophical view or theory about how we should evaluate a wide range of things that involve choices that people face. To illustrate this method, suppose that you are buying ice cream for a party that ten people will attend.
They must actually poll or measure what act will produce the greatest utility. The society expects us to act in a such a way that will conform to these rules in order to live happy. Act utilitarians may sometimes support the intentional punishment of innocent people, but rule utilitarians will understand the risks involved and will oppose a practice that allows it. First, it fails to recognize the moral legitimacy of giving special preferences to ourselves and people that we know and care about. Like other forms of , its core idea is that whether actions are morally right or wrong depends on their effects. Cambridge University Press, 1998, 255—92.
It is argued that rule utilitarianism becomes rule-worship when they refuse to break a rule : If the consequences demand it, we should violate the rule. It also maintains that it is happiness that is key to life's conquest, and hence happiness that is the determination of right or wrong. If one action produces greater happiness, but also greater unhappiness, and if a second action produces slightly less happiness but also less unhappiness than the later should be chosen as the morally more correct action. Nevertheless, the two clashed when it came down to the understanding of what true pleasure is, and whether it holds different values under different circumstances. Act Utilitarianism: Pros and Cons Act utilitarianism is often seen as the most natural interpretation of the utilitarian ideal.
He developed his ethical system based on ancient hedonism, which perused physical pleasure and avoided physical pain. This theory in ethics accentuates on the fact that we should engage in acts that do maximum good to the maximum number of people. Act utilitarianism sees the consequence of an action in itself as one act whereas rule utilitarianism sees the consequences as if it will be repeated all over again for the long term. Just because murder was correct in the above case, does not mean it will be correct in all other cases. Very simply if an actions consequence cause happiness, then the action is right, if it causes pain, or destroys happiness then the action is wrong. Looks at the consequences of having everyone follow a particular rule and calculates the overall utility of accepting or rejecting the rule.
Act Utilitarianism vs Rule Utilitarianism Our world is governed by rules, either implied or implemented, and early on we are taught to live by these rules. Explain the differences between Act and Rule Utilitarianism Since it began, there have been two main exponents of Utilitarianism. Stop signs forbid drivers to go through an intersection without stopping, even if the driver sees that there are no cars approaching and thus no danger in not stopping. I feel it has many very important aspects for moral decision making. Mill consequently constructed a hierarchy of pleasures, with the higher pleasures appealing to higher faculties. The theory of utilitarianism lies in the performance of acts that are either good or bad and that are either right or wrong.
It is not only however happiness of an action that must be considered but also the potential unhappiness. Act utilitarianism, however, provides a method for showing which moral beliefs are true and which are false. It can be considered as an example of rule utilitarianism. In their view, the principle of utility—do whatever will produce the best overall results—should be applied on a case by case basis. The action and out come of death is wrong but the happiness of the killer and the happiness of potential future victims of theft overcomes the pain from his death. It asks more than can reasonably be expected of people.
If you enjoy chocolate but hate vanilla, you should choose chocolate for the pleasure it will bring and avoid vanilla because it will bring displeasure. Where an act utilitarian looks at the results of an individual action in order to assess whether it is right or wrong, the Rule utilitarian follows general rules and principles. Let's consider the rule that states you must stop your vehicle at a red traffic light. If desires conflict, then the things most strongly preferred are identified as good. To some extent, rule utilitarians and act utilitarians disagree about the degree to which we need rules to overcome this problem with Mill's approach. There are further problems when applying the theory.
Once we determine what these rules are, we can then judge individual actions by seeing if they conform to these rules. The correct moral rules are those whose inclusion in our moral code will produce better results more well-being than other possible rules. It enables people to have a wide range of cooperative relationships by generating confidence that other people will do what they promise to do. For them, what is right or wrong for a person to do depends on what is knowable by a person at a time. Hence, act utilitarianism is directly related to classical utilitarianism. Do the calculations measure the happiness for a small group, entire country, the whole world? His theory is put it to three parts, the first being what motivated human beings. It is also referred to as moral philosophy and analyzes the principles that decide the behavior of an individual or a group.
It critically examines these procedures in the moral dilemma with reference of applying the concepts: rule and act utilitarianism. As if everybody was always, unexceptionally honest, it is likely to have a beneficial effect on society. The theory treats all people as being equal. At least with the Rule theory, the road to good intentions is paved with good. Utilitarianism is teleological or consequentialist approach to ethics, which argues that something is good or bad according to its benefit for the majority of the people.