# Application of indifference curve analysis. How indifference curves are used to explain principles of demand 2019-01-11

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## What is the significance of indifference curve analysis in real practice?

Suppose further that price of food is Rs. If combination F is equal to combination B in terms of satisfaction and combination E is equal to combination B in satisfaction. Another way to think about the new budget line is to remember that its slope is equal to the negative of the price of the good on the horizontal axis divided by the price of the good on the vertical axis. Now she is on a higher indifference curve, E. But at what level will exchange take place? Sometimes this is a good thing for the good in question, other times it's not. Thus, with the rise in wage rate above W 1,labour supply decreases.

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## How indifference curves are used to explain principles of demand

For the British prisoners, the utility-maximizing solution is at point E, with more tea and little coffee. Thus indifference curve is steeper towards the Y axis and gradual towards the X axis. The concept of indifference curve analysis was first propounded by British economist Francis Ysidro Edgeworth and was put into use by Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto during the early 20 th century. In other words, to increase leisure by one hour, an individual has to forego the opportunity of earning income equal to wage per hour which he can earn by doing work for an hour. The credit goes to R. This is otherwise termed as the combination which lie on a higher indifference curve will be opted to the combinations which lie on a lower indifference curve.

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## How to Construct Indifference Curves

Additionally, per the publisher's request, their name has been removed in some passages. Consistency Indifference curve theory assumes that preferences will be consistent, given the same information and constraints. The vertical intercept of the budget line is found by dividing Ms. Indifference curves, like many aspects of contemporary , have been criticized for oversimplifying or making unrealistic assumptions about human action. We have to find out whether he is better off or worse off in 1999 in comparison to the year 1998. Our analysis is based on two assumptions. Constructing an indifference curve A single indifference schedule can be constructed to show all those possible combinations of goods that would yield the same utility to the consumer.

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## 7 Important Criticisms of Indifference Curve Analysis

The rate at which one commodity is exchanged with other so that the levels of satisfaction remains constant. Similarly, the utility derived from orange is measured for example, 5 utils. So the worker has a tendency to substitute work for leisure. Diminishing marginal rate of substitution From table 1 and figure 1, we can easily explain the concept of diminishing marginal rate of substitution. Indifference Curve Analysis: Application 3. In the theory of production: The basic aim of a producer is to attain a low cost combination. That means that the rate at which she would be willing to exchange skiing for horseback riding is less than the market asks.

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## Uses Or Application Of Indifference Curve Study

In ordinal numbers the combinations of the goods are put in order of preferences and consumer is indifferent to various combinations as they represent the same level of satisfaction. We cannot segregate income effect and substitution effect from price effect. Suppose now that Government levies an excise duty an indirect tax on good X. It will be seen from Figure 11. There are infinitely many indifference curves: one passes through each combination.

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## The Uses or Application of Indifference Curve Analysis

In particular, economists such as Edgeworth, Hicks, Allen and Slutsky opposed utility as a measurable entity. Hence we can say that two indifference curves never intersect each other because they show different levels of satisfaction. It is important to note that in this possible case, the effect of food stamp subsidy is exactly the same as would be the case if cash subsidy is granted to the individual. According to this idea it was natural to think that consumers made their decisions in order to maximize profitability. Having 1 sweater and increasing this to 2 means being prepared to lose 13 pairs of socks, while increasing sweaters from 8 to 9 means sacrificing only 5 pairs of socks. When one arrives at two options that are indifferent to the individual, these two points that represent them are on the same indifference curve. If two goods are then the indifference curves will have a constant slope since the consumer would be willing to switch between at a fixed ratio.

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## Introduction to indifference curves

The logical structure of indifference curve theory is such that it is difficult to quantity indifference curves. The cardinal utility approach, though very useful in studying elementary consumer behavior, is criticized for its unrealistic assumptions vehemently. Thus, indifference map shows a set of various indifference curves available to an individual consumer. The law of demand is widened with the explanation of income effect and substitution effect with the price effect caused by the change in the prices of two commodities. This means, any combination of two goods on the higher curve give higher level of satisfaction to the consumer than the combination of goods on the lower curve. It is also assumed that prices of both the commodities are constant. Budget constraints give a straight line on the indifference map showing all the possible distributions between the two goods; the point of maximum utility is then the point at which an indifference curve is tangent to the budget line illustrated.

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## Applications and Uses of Indifference Curves (explained with diagram)

Notice that gives the vertical change divided by the horizontal change between two points. Indifference curves do not intersect with each other. A glance at panel b of Figure 11. For most goods the marginal rate of substitution is not constant so their indifference curves are curved. The fact that her indifference curve is steeper than her budget line tells us that the rate at which she is willing to exchange the two goods differs from the rate the market asks. As a matter of fact, his decision to save is influenced by the intensity of his desire for present goods and future goods.

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## How indifference curves are used to explain principles of demand

An indifference curve works in a very simple fashion. Suppose a consumer buys only two goods X and Y in two different time periods 0 and 1 and he spends his entire income on them in the two periods. . Then we can draw some conclusions about the choices a utility-maximizing consumer could be expected to make. As a result, the indifference curve slopes downward from left to right. As noted above, combination H is not available under food stamp subsidy because food stamps cannot be used to purchase other goods. There are bad effects on the demand for goods when indirect tax excise duty is levied by finance ministry than the direct tax in the form of income tax.

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