Many like minded congress men became his followers. He strongly recommended the militant method of agitation. Secondly, the right of the minority to weight age was also conceded. He therefore enacted a number of measures which evoked strong resentment from the Indians and helped the extremist leaders to exploit the situation. There was a clear attempt to step down, even from the position taken up in 1904, regarding the boycott and national education. The Quit India Movement or the August Revolution marked a new era in the history of Indian National Movement.
After his death, she continued his social and educational reform work. The beginning of the revolutionary activities in Bengal is traced to the work of bhadralok class. The most prominent leaders of the Assertive Nationalists were , and , who are known collectively as the trio. Hume strenuously consolidated the network of contacts, which he established. For this purpose, they used constitutional methods and sent petitions and memorials to the government. So the year 1916 not only saw a union between the Congress and the Muslim League in the form of Lucknow pact but also reunion of the two wings of the Congress.
But with advent of Annie Besant, the political life of the country got a fresh lease of life. Bipin Chandra Pal, Aurobindo Ghosem Rajnarayan Bose, and Ashwini Kumar Dutt Social Support Zamindars and Upper middle classes in towns Educated middle and lower middle classes in towns Contribution 1. Gokhale was presided over this session. The national movement was to grow and the country and its people were to know no rest till freedom was won. They failed to realise that British and Indian interests clashed with each other and that Britain was using India's resources to increase its wealth. Banerjee was a critic of the proposed method of civil disobedience advocated by Mahatma Gandhi, G. The list of great women whose names have gone down in history for their dedication and undying devotion to the service of India is a long one.
Though all of them were highly educated and greatly influenced by English literature and political ideas, and institutions, they drew heavily from the traditional culture and civilization of India rather than from the West. They trained the minds of the people for political agitation for self-government. More than anything else, the National Congress represented the urge of the politically conscious Indians to set up a national organization to work for their political and economic advancement. Extremism on the Indian national scene did not spring up all of a sudden in the first decade of the twentieth century. Kripalani 1947 — Delhi — Rajendra Prasad.
The press and platform of the annual sessions were their agency of agitation. To deal with their activities effectively it introduced a number of changes in the Indian Penal Code viz, it added Sections 124A and 153A. The Early Nationalists demanded the Abolition of the and restoration of individual liberties and right to assemble and to form associations. Saunders, an Assistant Superintendent of Police. He was the leader of the moderate faction of the Congress party that advocated reforms by working with existing government institutions.
Although they asked for constitutional and other reforms within the framework of British rule, they had full faith in that nation's sense of justice and fair play. So, as Surat was the home province of he could not preside over the meeting. Thus all threats of passive resistance and boycott as a means for achieving the objective of the Congress, on which Tilak and his followers were so keen, were permanently ruled out. The extremist wanted to have an open election and desired to propose the name of Lala Lajpat Rai, who declined to stand under such circumstances. The Indian Mirror was the other contemporary of this paper which was very popular among the reading public. The demands of the extremist it is said that it is the right of the abdication of the right of the England to determine the policy of the Indian Government, the right of the present foreign despotism to enact whatever law they please to govern the people of this country. The North-West Frontier Province, United Provinces, Central Provinces, Bihar, Orissa, Madras, and Bombay were the seven provinces wherein the Congress formed its ministries.
Following this, on 22 June 1897, Commissioner Rand and another British officer, Lt. The prominent moderate leaders were Womesh Chandra Banerjee, Dadabhai Navroji, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Romesh Chunder Dutt, Pherozeshah Mehta, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Sir Surendranath Banerjee, Sir Dinshaw Edulji Wacha, Justice Mahadeo Govind Ranade, Badruddin Tyabji, Sir William Wedderburn. To achieve these ends, they worked on a two-pronged methodology 1 create a strong public opinion to arouse consciousness and national spirit and then educate and unite people on common political questions; 2 persuade the British Government and British public opinion to introduce reforms in India on the lines laid out by the nationalists. The extremists advocated Boycott of Foreign goods, use of Swadeshi goods, national education and passive resistance. In 1887 the Government sentenced him to 18 months rigorous imprisonment. A remarkable characteristic of the movement was the extensive involvement of women. Bhikaiji Rustom Cama attended the International Socialist Conference in Stuttgart, Germany, where she described the devastating effects of a famine that had struck the Indian subcontinent.
Secondly Tilak, who was imprisoned in 1908, was released in 1914. Wanted to end the tyranny rule of British. The first session of the Early Nationalists of India in 1885 Focusing on demands for reform, the Early Nationalists adopted a constitutional and peaceful approach to achieve their objectives. They marched shoulder to shoulder with the men in the processions. The Swadeshi movement provided a spark which intensified this clash and increased the division between them.
Drain of Wealth Theory: Dada Bhai Naraoji The most remarkable contribution of moderates was the ideological background for the political struggle. The constitution lay down that in future only those who submit to the constitution in writing would be admitted as delegates. But the Moderates were in no mood to accept him. But none of these demands were fulfilled. Later, the paper was taken over by Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. The Moderates believed that the British basically wanted to be just to the Indians but were not aware of the real conditions. Gokhale in his address criticised the Government, condemned the partition and approved the swadeshi movement.
However, there appeared a change in the outlook of the Moderate leaders. They did not want to annoy the government and incur the risk of suppression. Subramania Iyer arranged for the remarriage of his widowed daughter for which he was socially boycotted. Chidambaram Pillai were Tilak supporters. The Moderates were thoroughly convinced about the efficacy the British Parliament as also the British people and extensively used propaganda as a tool to influence public opinion in Britain.