Introduction for literature review. How to Write the Introduction and Literature Review Section of a Research Paper 2019-01-11

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Introduction and Literature Review

introduction for literature review

However, African-American patients were more likely to die than whites 30% vs. Here are some tips in writing your introduction. One, these data provide little or no information regarding co-morbid illnesses, the severity of disease, or the stage at which illness was detected. The committee therefore concludes that while evidence of racial and ethnic disparities in care appear consistently across a range of health conditions and medical procedures, attempts to assess or quantify the extent of these disparities, based on evidence currently available, are not likely to prove to be reliable or valid. Malephysicians prescribed higher doses of pain treatment to white than African-American patients and to male than female patients.


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How To Write A Literature Review, with Example

introduction for literature review

These access-related factors are likely the most significant barriers to equitable care, and must be addressed as an important first step toward eliminating healthcare disparities. This is a cyclical process. Five-year relative survival rates were similar for black and white patients 42% vs. Then, after I am done reading each article, I summarize that article in a table that can be used for quick reference during the writing process. Doing a literature review: Releasing the social science research imagination.

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Introduction to literature reviews

introduction for literature review

After controlling for age, maternal education, insurance, poverty status, source of care, geographic location, health status, number of bed days, number of reduced activity days, and physician visits, black children received the fewest number of medications. Almost all of the studies reviewed here find that as more potentially confounding variables are controlled, the magnitude of racial and ethnic disparities in care decreases. Cardiovascular Care Some of the strongest and most consistent evidence for the existence of racial and ethnic disparities in care is found in studies of cardiovascular care. Further, physician recommendation appears to be the major factor in determining whether patients receive invasive cardiac procedures Hannan et al. However, among those not treated, blacks were more likely than whites to have treatment not recommended 53. One way to synthesise these texts, is to group together the texts supporting your key resource articles B and D , and explain that article C presents contradictory results. More such studies are needed to assess the relative contribution of access-related factors e.

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Introduction to literature reviews

introduction for literature review

Variations in the extent of disease among patients are rarely well controlled, and the comprehensiveness of treatment cannot be evaluated. The authors speculate that several barriers to referral may exist, particularly for low-income African Americans, including geographic distance from specialists who are primarily located in suburban and higher-income communities , the presence of other life demands and challenges, and assumptions on the part of primary care physicians that low-income patients would be unable to maintain compliance with treatment regimens. Source: Gomes and McGuire, 2001 Finally, in defining racial and ethnic minority groups, the committee uses the definitions provided by the federal Office of Management and Budget in its proposed Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity Office of Management and Budget, 2001. As with many of the studies reviewed above, however, this study did not obtain detailed clinical data or information or patient preferences, which could explain some of the observed differences Kravitz, 1999. If you are stuck on how to organize your concepts, note how the publications most related to your project handled the literature review. For example, inadequately treated and managed diabetes can result in far more expensive complications, such as kidney disorder requiring dialysis or transplantation.

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How To Write A Literature Review, with Example

introduction for literature review

Relative to risk ratios, odds ratios exaggerate the apparent effect of a co-variable when the prevalence of the dependent variable is above 5%-10%. Generally, the purpose of a review is to analyze critically a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies, reviews of literature, and theoretical articles. Nonetheless, the committee adopts these racial and ethnic definitions because they are commonly accepted among researchers, and most federally funded research utilizes these terms. How To Write A Literature Review Writing a literature review is perhaps the best piece of literature that a student can work with. In this context, the extent to which minorities are well or poorly served provides an important indicator of the state of healthcare in the nation.

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Introduction for literature review

introduction for literature review

. Third, these data typically provide no information regarding patients' education level or other socioeconomic background information. You may need to complete several drafts before your final copy. On the other hand, attention must be paid to the quality of care across the entire system. Literature review outlining, on the other hand, simply uses the paragraphs in a logical and systematic manner, with which each thesis of the paragraphs works in conjunction with each other to support the main thesis of the article while the succeeding parts of each paragraph works to support the main thesis of a paragraph.


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Introduction and Literature Review

introduction for literature review

Hispanics were nearly 10% more likely to lack a usual source of care, and African Americans and Hispanics were nearly 9% and over 10% less likely, respectively, to have made any ambulatory care visits. Public opinion polls indicate that the vast majority of Americans abhor any form of racial discrimination and believe that all Americans should — and do — enjoy equal opportunities in accessing educational and job opportunities, as well as healthcare Morin, 2001. It is a short form of the final paper or thesis. Purpose of Writing an Introduction for Papers or Books The main purpose of introduction writing is to set up an understanding about the topic of the book or a dissertation. African Americans were more likely than whites to receive a barium enema only, were less likely to receive a combination of barium enema and sigmoidoscopy, and were less likely to undergo colonoscopy.

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Sample Literature Reviews

introduction for literature review

These differences were not found among white patients similarly deemed appropriate for invasive treatment. Further, in a few well-designed, prospective studies, these disparities in care have been linked to poorer clinical outcomes and higher mortality among minorities Peterson et al. Similarly, black patients with squamous cell carcinoma were less likely than whites to undergo surgical resection, but were more likely to receive radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Mitchell and colleagues Mitchell et al. However, the literature review is one step beyond this evaluation of resources, as it is primarily concerned with examining the field. This body of literature, however, represents only a fraction of the published studies that investigate racial and ethnic differences in access to and use of healthcare services. However, the focus of a literature review in a graduate research thesis is to identify gaps and argue for the need for further research.

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Introduction to Literature Reviews

introduction for literature review

However, even when differences in preference were taken into account, African-American patients were much less likely than white patients to have been referred to a transplant center for evaluation 50. Racial differences in clinical presentation or disease severity do not fully explain differences in receipt of services Hannan et al. Further, most studies with the exception of several studies of cardiovascular care lack comparison to standards for the appropriateness of care, leaving open the question of whether care received was sufficient given the type and severity of disease. This type of analysis, however, fails to provide a complete picture of the appropriateness of care, as whites may over-utilize some services, and racial differences in the severity of disease at presentation or treatment response may contraindicate the use of similar therapeutic interventions. However, when the physicians' recommendations were analyzed by gender, a significant interaction was observed.


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