Construction survey In surveying relative position of points are located by measurement from at least two points of reference, whose positions must be known already. Levelling Terminology: Elevation Reduced Level : the vertical distance from a vertical datum Vertical datum: any level surface to which elevations are referred i. This includes daily checks, periodic routine maintenance and yearly cleaning and adjustment by a qualified repair shop. In a tertiary health care setting, for example, incident reports may be required for all cases of patients falling whether they injure themselves or not , for medication and blood transfusion errors, fires and instances of patient abuse Berntsen, 2004. An electronic digital level can perform and record this process automatically, after sight of the rod is made.
A building can be set out by taking referencing from an already established baseline. Raasterization: The process that converts vector data, which is a series of points, lines and polygons into raster data which is a series of cells with a discrete value. Normally we will assign an elevation of 100. Automatic Level is easy to set up and easy to use. Surveying and leveling are the initial stages before construction has actually started.
Report writing differs from essay writing because it has a different purpose. To obtain the height of C the level is moved to a new position I2. Any information or suggestions about this proposed scheme would be welcome. However, levelling offers an inexpensive, simple and accurate method for measuring heights, and it is widely used in construction sites. The structure of a report is enhanced through the use of subheadings, diagrams, tables, graphs, illustrations etc. We able to done the calculations by using Rise and Fall Method and Height of Collimation Method.
Turning is a term used when referring to moving the level to take an elevation shot from a different location. Tallies are fixed at every five-meter length and brass rings are provided at every meter length except where tallies are attached. It is, therefore, perpendicular to the plumb line through the point. Tape is made of synthetic material, glass fiber or linen. Reports are highly structured so that information they contain can be easily understood.
A report can be as small as one sentence and it can be as big as several hundred pages. Bench marks set should always be turned through as part of a closed level loop. In every organization hundreds of reports are prepared and submitted. It is a self-leveling optical instrument for accurately measuring horizontal planes and angles at long or short distances. So, because the collimation error is 2 mm the instrument is in a good condition. A discussion concerning the five rules of narrative report writing is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the importance of honest, factual report writing.
An irregular building or a building Combination of two or more simple circular curves of different radius having their curvature in the same direction. It allow us to measure a large elevation vertical distances. It is now possible, though not usual in practise, to reduce the levels in exactly the same manner as before. Methods of levelling Three principle methods are used for determining differences in elevation, namely, barometric levelling, trigonometric levelling and spirit levelling. If you use abbreviations in your List of Figures, then these same abbreviations should be used in the legend of your figure. The surveyor does this with the use of a built into the instrument mount.
I is also integrated with microprocessor, electronic data collector and storage system. If erratic compensator movement is detected, have a qualified repair shop service the instrument. L is total length from point A to B. For most work it is sufficient to keep the foresight and backsight distances approximately equal so that the refraction and curvature effects cancel out. The figure numbers and captions of the figures must correspond exactly to the figure numbers and captions in your report. Before any construction starts its important to make sure the land is in level and doesn't have much difference in gradient. Topic 2 : Levelling How levelling is conducted In the figure below the height or reduced level of A is known and the heights of B and C need to be estimated.
Besides that, Automatic Level compensator takes over and precisely levels itself. Double-levelling costs twice as much as single-levelling. Other forms of leveling are available but are not discussed in this manual as they are not preferred or their use may be limited. A horizontal plane of sight tangent to level surface at any point is readily established by means of a spirit level or a level vial. Three-Wire Leveling Three-wire leveling is the process of reading and recording a rod reading for each of the three horizontal cross-hairs on each shot, then averaging the readings for agreement with the center reading. Because R1 is bigger than R2, R1 — R2 is positive and is know as a rise. Those who do not have any vehicles, for them this is only a piece of information.
The rod can be made by wood, metal and fiberglass. Internship Final Report Format Overview The internship final report should be a formal document written in prose that summarizes the internship experience. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Science Ltd. The bench marks should not include objects subject to tampering or removal. Use the sample title page on page 3 as a template. A prismatic compensator fitted between the eyepiece and the objective lens make correction of slight tilt automatically.