As the Samanid dynasty waned and lost its power, Alaptagin moved to the mountains of Afghanistan and established his authority in Ghazna. But the greatness of Ghori was that none of these defeats could weaken his spirits or check his ambitions. He died on April 30, 1030, and his tomb at Ghazni has survived. While the dominance of certain great empires started to be recognized in Islamic lands, the crusaders were destroyed, allowing conquests to resume. Ismailis in Medieval Muslim societies. His chief in northern India was Jaipal, the ruler of the Punjab.
A force of 30,000 Khokars, a fierce, primitive tribe, charged both flanks of the Sultan's army with such ferocity that Mahmud was about to call a retreat. Destroying the temples and monuments, would destroy the will power of the Hindus attacking the Empire since Mahmud never kept a permanent presence in the northwestern subcontinent; , , , , 1023 and all submitted or were raided. In 1025, it took him to Somanath, the site of a major Shiva temple. It was held in the highest honor among the Hindus, and whoever beheld it floating in the air was struck with amazement, whether he was a Musulman or an. The two main reasons that led to the conquest of India by Mahmud Ghazni was firstly, to accumulate the vast amount of wealth that existed in India, and secondly, to spread Islam. Rev: Arabic Legends : Al-Kadir billah. Ghazni looted all the treasures of the temple, which was at that time worth 20-million Dinars, more than eighty times of what he had collected in his first invasion.
As a result, the Age of the Sultanate lasted more than 1,000 years. A patron of the arts, Mahmud attracted poets from all parts of Asia. The young and ambitious Maḥmūd aspired to be a great monarch, and in more than 20 successful expeditions he amassed the wealth with which to lay the foundation of a vast empire that eventually included the and Punjab regions and a large part of Iran. Astronomy and Mathematics , ultimately compiling his knowledge in an encyclopedia of sorts on India. Alaptagin died in 995 and his son-in-law Subaktagin succeeded him. Mahmud besieged , in 1023, where he given tribute. Its local Abu Nasr Mohammad, offered his services to the Sultan and his daughter to Mahmud's son, Muhammad.
His only territorial acquisition in India was the Punjab 1021. Mahmud is said to have vowed to invade India once a year and, in fact, led about 17 such expeditions. His return detoured across the to avoid the armies of and other allies on his return. A zealous Sunni Moslem, he plundered wealthy India and used the booty to patronize culture in Ghazni, making it the center of Perso-Islamic civilization. Substantial presents were also sent to Baghdad to obtain from the Caliph the title of Sultan, but this effort was unsuccessful. It is said, on such occasions, the bird was affected with the smell of the poison in such a way, as to fly distractedly about its cage, while tears streamed involuntarily from the eyes.
Upon his capital of Ghazna, he bestowed untold riches. Baghdad, the once mighty caliphate, which encouraged the countless Islamic invasions of India, is a dystopian nightmare. The used to go on pilgrimage to it whenever there was an eclipse of the moon, and would then assemble there to the number of more than a hundred thousand. Sword, rose and prayer rug Although Mahmud belonged to a noble family and was raised in good hands, his success was not solely based on those factors. His most important expedition was against the temple of Somanth in 1025. The fifth of these commanders was Sebüktigin, who governed Ḡazna for twenty years till 997 with the title of Al-Hājeb Al-Ajall most noble commander. Specifically, it was the British politicians who rewrote Indian history.
Peter Malcolm Holt, , The Cambridge History of Islam, Cambridge University Press, 1977 , pg 3—4. He was a bloodthirsty and greedy ruler, who launched Jihad on Hindus, and through invasion and plunder, created an enormous empire that stretched from Iran to India. When his father died in 997, his brother İsmail inherited the throne first, just one example of the setbacks Mahmud had faced. The following year Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and crushed Sukha Pala, ruler of who had become ruler by rebelling against the Shahi kingdom. His empire included Persia, Afghanistan, Trans-oxyana, and Punjab. The conquest, so to speak, went in further and took Kannauj as well. Mahmud became the hero of many legends, many of them centering on his relationship with his favorite slave, Ayaz.
In modern Pakistan he is hailed as a conquering hero who established the standard of Islam upon heathen land, while in India he is a raiding invader, bent upon the loot and plunder of a peaceful Hindu population. Military campaigns In 994, Mahmud joined his father in the capture of from the rebel Fa'iq in aid of the ,. Mahmud's first campaign to the south was against an state first established at in 965 by a from the in a bid to carry political favor and recognition with the Abbasid Caliphate; he also engaged with the Fatimids elsewhere. His only territorial acquisition in India was the Punjab 1021. It is in his interactions with Hindustan that the historic importance of Mahmud crystallizes.
Later, when the were overrunning the western parts of the Ghaznavid Empire, a mutiny among the Ghaznavid troops placed Mohammad back upon the throne, and he had his brother Mas'ud imprisoned in turn. His son and successor, Sultan Masud, also received the endowment and recognition of the caliph, after promising to send him every year a sum of 200,000 dinars, 10,000 pieces of cloth, besides other presents. Mahmud was contented to plunder the wealth of India and did not think of establishing his empire. Mahmud appointed local vassal kings to rule in his name in many of the conquered regions, easing relations with non-Muslim populations. His kingdom formed the core of the Ghaznavid Empire, and he is credited with founding the dynasty. From there he decided to focus on Hindustan to the southeast, particularly the highly lands of the since Afghanistan was mostly mountains and dry deserts. According to historians, Mahmud had promised Ferdowsi a dinar for every distich written in the Shahnameh 60,000 dinars , but later retracted and presented him with dirhams 20,000 dirhams , the equivalent at that time of only 200 dinars.
The notable poet , after laboring 27 years, went to Ghazni and presented the to Mahmud. Patron of the arts and poetry Mahmud brought whole libraries from Rayy and Isfahan to Ghazni. Fanatical, cruel to Hindus as well as to Moslem heretics, fickle, and uncertain in temper, Mahmud was extremely greedy of wealth. In a battle near now in the Indians, though superior in numbers and equipment, fell back under the onslaught of the Muslim horsemen, leaving behind 15,000 dead. Mahmud of Ghazni is often regarded to be the greatest ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire. Anandapala is defeated at and pursued to Sodra.
Maḥmūd is said to have vowed to invade India once a year and, in fact, led about 17 such expeditions. He transformed Ghazni, the first centre of , into one of the leading cities of Central Asia, patronizing scholars, establishing colleges, laying out gardens, and building mosques, palaces, and caravansaries. His army included Hindus who were allowed to observe their own religion. He thereby established a hold on what is the modern-day Punjab. However, modern historians, such as Thapar, Richard M. Handbook of Oriental studies: Near and Middle East.