The participants were asked to verbally describe the colour of each slide, with the confederates answering first. Such ideas are supported by the , which states that if systematic processing occurs, strong arguments should lead to greater influence than weak arguments. The participants were first given eye tests to ensure they were not color-blind. This video discusses factors that impact majority influence, such as group size, salient norms, allies, and gender. Norms are implicit, specific rules, shared by a group of individuals, that guide their interactions with others. However, when he compromised and moved some way towards the majority position, the majority also compromised and changed their view. Minority influence on the other hand, refers to the influence that the minority exert over the majority in that the majority come to accept the beliefs and behaviours of a minority in Baron et al.
However, the problem with this model is that is does not explain how minorities or majorities for that matter produce attitude change, and it also makes the false prediction that consistent majorities will always be more influential than consistent minorities. Social cryptoamnesia explains that thoughts and ideas that challenge or shock are stored in memory without retaining the ownership of the idea. Vol 115, No 3, pp. Members who are also of high socioeconomic status are also more likely to influential in the jury deliberation process. It is generally felt after a stretched period of time, and tends to produce a private, internalised, acceptance.
Moscovic made a distinction between compliance and conversion. Because of the theoretical significance of these findings and because of their inconsistency with data from other experiments, an exact replication and extension of this experiment was performed. To conclude, social responses to conformity can be seen to vary along a continuum from conversion to anticonformity. This meant the results were not generalisable outside of the population sampled and did not apply to anyone other than male American college students. The second motive that explains why people conform according to Deutsch and Gerard, 1955 is based on informational social influence. In conclusion, both majority and minority influence hold great importance in their own right.
Compare and Contrast Minority and Majority Influence Essay As social beings, with each one of us connected to a whole network of other humans and their associated beliefs, opinions and traits practically every conscious second of the day, it is inevitable that we will be subject to external influences. This is because being associated with the majority is desirable. In addition, the study lacks ecological validity in Bailey, J. Asch 1951 - the line experiment Early studies into conformity, such as t, had used stimuli that were ambiguous and so it could be argued that participants conformed because they were unsure as to the correct answer and so went along with the information provided by the other participants in the group. Majority influence refers to the majority trying to produce conformity on the minority, while minority influence is converting the majority to adopt the thinking of the minority group.
The results revealed a similar trend — older participants displayed less conformity when compared to younger participants. Method: Eight male students were arranged around a table as shown by the circles in the image below. Moscovici's approach is important as it has identified the types of that occur in group influenced. The high motivation group conformed less at 16%. In de Roo, Gert; Silva, Elisabete A. He showed that a consistent minority was more successful than an inconsistent minority in changing the views of the majority.
The presence of another group member going against the majority opinion a dissenter lends social support, and other group members are less likely to feel alone and are more likely to stick to their own opinion. The social impact model further explains that social impact is the multiplicative effect of strength power, status, knowledge , the immediacy physical proximity and recency , and the number of group members, supporting the view that a minority will be less influential on a larger majority. For example, Alice Eagly and Linda Carli performed a meta-analysis of 148 studies of influenceability. Moscovici 1976, 1980 argued along different lines. Majority influence occurs when people conform to certain beliefs and behaviours in order to be accepted by others. Such a culture is likely to breed a fear of nonconformity and make conformity more likely, so the study may have been measuring political feeling and fears at the time rather than the human tendency to conform - see child of its time below. The more knowledgeable a person is, the more valuable they are as a resource.
The people comply as long as they are in a complying situation. Once they finished rating the pictures we then chose 10 images that they chose to be disgusting. This is during an unambiguous task, where the participants may be worried about the responses of others and to gain rewards, such as being accepted by others. There was no evidence of compliance in any social influence condition. Minority groups can influence majority groups through informational influence. One psychological process underlying majority influence is through direct public compliance.
Therefore, majority influence is seen as normative social influence because often it is generated by a desire to fit in and conform to the group, e. Since majorities are often unconcerned about what minorities think about them, minority influence is rarely based on normative social influence. This can lead to the majority taking the minority view seriously. Conversion theory assumes that individuals are motivated to reduce this conflict, and how it is resolved depends on whether the source of conflict is a majority or a minority. In a study by Reitan and Shaw, it was found that men and women conformed more when there were participants of both sexes involved versus participants of the same sex.
The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Behavioural style Serge Moscovici and Nemeth 1974 argued that minority influence is effective as long as there is consistency over time and agreement among the members of the minority. The hard work of the suffragettes, combined with the justice of their case, finally led the majority to accept their point of view. The Journal of Social Psychology. A better single process theory is 's. The confederates consistently said the slides were green.