Future research should take a multilevel approach, as race is simultaneously a marker for both macro-level contexts and micro-level situations. New York University Press; New York: 2006. Generally, the problem populations include racial and ethnic minorities, the chronically unemployed, and the extremely impoverished. Tittle, Charles 1995 Control Balance: Toward a General Theory of Deviance. Exchange theory is a given relationship is found to be attractive whereas the rewards tend to outweigh punishment Blau, 1964. Also includes implications for crime prevention.
More recent structural perspectives explicitly incorporate racialized structural constraints, even institutional discrimination, and, yet, the proximal mechanism explaining offending among African Americans in these accounts remains deviant or dysfunctional cultural adaptations ; ; ;. According to control theory, the more committed, attached, involved, and believing individuals are, the greater is their bond to society. I want to ask you some questions about whether you have experienced racial discrimination. Prompted by new theories and reformulations of existing ones, over 200 empirical studies explored ecological correlates of crime. Neither is better than the other. When both types of enterprises coexist, violence is restrained.
Using panel data from several hundred African American male youth from the Family and Community Health Study, we find that racial discrimination is positively associated with increased crime in large part by augmenting depression, hostile views of relationships, and disengagement from conventional norms. This leads to our next hypothesis: Hypothesis 4: A hostile view of relationships partially mediates the effect of racial discrimination on offending. The societal response has, from this viewpoint, succeeded only in confirming the individual in a deviant role; for example, by potentially making adolescent delinquents into adult criminals through the punitive reactions of the police, courts, and others. These integrations involve theories that are often thought to be in apposition if not opposition to one another. Several recent studies point to various social psychological processes e. . This point is further emphasized in conflict theories.
The Theory of the Estimation of Test Reliability. Much of the writing in this tradition has addressed the differential processing of people defined as deviant. Though her research is limited to one high school in one place for a fixed amount of time, Pascoe's work compellingly demonstrates how certain social forces, including mass media, pornography, parents, school administrators, teachers, and peers come together to produce messages to boys that the right way to be masculine is to be strong, dominant, and compulsively heterosexual. Strengthening schools and other stabilizing institutions in neighborhoods, such as churches and community centers, can also contribute to a reduction in deviance. Noting that racial discrimination does not inevitably lead to criminal behavior, we focus on cultural practices that provide resilience to discrimination. Specifically, this leads to the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 5: Cultural socialization is inversely associated with offending, depression, disengagement from conventional norms, and hostile views of relationships compensatory effect. This chapter presents an overview of the micro-level processes inherent to the street gang.
An alternative conceptualization recognizes that the actions and messages of oppressed groups can be influenced by the white racist frame, and if these actions harm racial minorities by privileging whites or whiteness e. Instructively, we first estimated the protective effects of both preparation for bias and cultural socialization. Factors such as interest rates, employment, inflation, money supply, etc. In effect, these institutions define and process society's problem populations as deviant in order to ensure effective management and control. Their argument is based in part on the observation that underclass delinquents, like white-collar criminals, usually exhibit guilt or shame when detected violating the law. The first involves revisionist histories linking the development of prisons, mental asylums, and other institutions of social control to structural changes in U.
Furthermore, studies show that distress is not related to later reports of racial discrimination e. At the heart of this perspective is the reasoning that individuals perceiving the threat of sanctions as high are much more likely to refrain from deviance than those perceiving the threat as low, regardless of the actual level of sanction threat. Written in a textbook style. Cloward and Ohlin suggest that three types of responses predominate, each one leading to its own respective subculture: a stable criminal subculture, a conflict subculture, and a retreatist subculture. Power-control theory generally predicts that in more patriarchal families, sons will be subjected to less maternal control, develop stronger preferences for risk taking, be more delinquent, and more often be officially labeled for being so. Lower Class Culture as a Generating Milieu of Gang Delinquency. In addition, the emerging role of technology on the maintenance and creation of social capital for gang members is examined.
A seemingly related but only more recently apparent question involves the decline since the early 1990s in the violent forms of delinquency, such as robbery and homicide, that we are best able to measure and monitor statistically over time. Cultural socialization was measured with youth responses to five questions about how often adults in their family engaged in activities or communications that highlighted African American culture and history or promoted black pride. Robert Merton's 1938 writing on American social structure and Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin's 1960 subsequent work on urban gangs laid the theoretical foundation for this perspective. The prevalence of preparation for bias across the two waves is tantamount to cultural socialization 98 percent , and both are consonant with extant research on African Americans e. It says explanations of social life and social structures are to be found at the individual level or in social interaction. More obviously, youths who have been taught prescriptions for coping with racist discrimination might handle these experiences more effectively ; ;.
We observe the same pattern for the product terms between preparation for bias and disengagement from norms Model 10 and depression Model 11. Scholars argue that unexpected discrimination is more stressful and that preparation for bias helps adolescents appropriately attribute race-based unfair treatment to external sources. Racial Identity Matters: The Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Psychological Functioning in African American Adolescents. Control theories typically maintain that the threat of sanctions actually prevents deviant acts when the risks outweigh the gains. Probation officers often attribute the offenses of minority youths to internal characteristics of the youths i.