Author: Christine Miller Endnotes: 1. Secondly, critics drew on racial theory and the concept of Latinitas Latin-ness to show an essential unity between Spain and Italy and create an ideological base that justified their cultural partnership. Contains analysis handouts for teachers and students using a variety of primary sources. Also another excellent resource for the swing kids is a history text entitled Inside Nazi Germany by Detlev Peukert Cambridge University Press, 1987. Invaluable in time of peace, it is indispensable in wartime. The activities below help students explore the role of jazz in American society and the ways that jazz functioned as an export of American culture and a means of resistance to the Nazis.
God Bless America: Tin Pan Alley Goes to War. Contemporary Music Review, 26 1 , 5-24. Recorded Anthology of American Music, 1977. Members of the Commission for Music and leaders of the Franco regime welcomed German political leaders in Madrid, and in return were received by officials including Heinz Drewes, leader of the Nazi , an organisation that promoted 'Aryan' music. This meant the American and British government could count on popular music reflecting much of the same war aims that the government wanted. Rebellious German kids would meet in secret locations and listen to Allied music stations to hear jazz music behind the 's metaphorical back. Although the radio could be used to boost American morale, the American Government censored radio channels in fear that enemy agents may be sending coded messages through song requests on the stations.
Although Spain was keen for a fertilisation of ideas with Germany, its composers made a point of maintaining its national 'Spanish' character in composition, using this as a base upon which to build strong links with Germany. Folk music events in Madrid attracted Portuguese diplomats; orchestras from both countries visited the other, including a tour of the Spanish National Orchestra to Portugal in 1944; and Portuguese composers such as Fernando Lopes-Graça and Rui Coelho and conductors including Pedro Freitas Branco made visits to Spain. In 1940, after an absence of 10 years, the Berlin Philharmonic returned to perform in Madrid, an event that was repeated several times over the next few years. Though local people still sang and produced songs, this form of music faced serious new competition from centralized electronic distributed music. Hindemith was one of many composers who fled the Third Reich as a result of musical persecution as well as racial persecution, since Hindemith's wife was part Jewish.
Never before was it possible for not only single songs, but also single recordings of songs to be so widely distributed to the population. Turina also reorganised the Madrid Royal Conservatory in an attempt to raise it to an international level that would equal that of German institutions. Food, gas and clothing were rationed. The Berliner Kammerorchester also made two visits to Madrid in 1941 with Italian tenor singer Tito Schipa and violinist Vittorio Brero. Wagner : Race and revolution.
Massaquoi was a real swing kid and served as technical advisor for the film. Activity: Write a Caption Using V-Disc Images for Stars and Stripes Newspaper Using the above Library of Congress handout, students will complete the following homework assignment: You are a reporter for Stars and Stripes newspaper assigned to write a story regarding the impact of V-Discs on the morale of American troops overseas. . Spain and Italy As with Hitler and Germany, Mussolini's love of music encouraged Spain to build a cultural relationship with Italy. Black troops were assigned menial jobs and rarely given combat duty or positions of authority and responsibility—even blood supplies were carefully separated due to the systematic racism of the time.
For example, critic and composer José Forns published a series of articles in which he praised 'ethnical peculiarities' such as melodies full of chiaroscuri contrasts of light and dark which he called 'a most Latin, Mediterranean feature'. National Archives and Record Services - General Services Administration, Washington D. Mobile desert combat required a large number of radio units and the in the started to enjoy the song so much that it was quickly translated into English. What is the basis for your position? Catalan composer Federico Mompou, for example, had to leave behind composition and turn to running a bell foundry to make ends meet. Initially, he played trombone for a 15-piece dance band at Maxwell Field, Ala. New Haven: Yale University Press. We present a brief excerpt of the forthcoming book below.
It was developed as a medical therapy, played to soldiers on the front lines, as well as broadcasted on the radio to spread the good feelings that music brought to all who listened, on both the home front and abroad. The Germans were winning everything until the United States joined in and changed the outcome. Have them try to find recordings of the songs they selected and present the song and their analyses to the class. You can also listen to jazz critic Gary Giddins' discussion of the appeal of swing. Called the Wolf Pack Band, we would play mostly swing tunes. Students begin sharing their responses with the class.
The bombing of the Bristol docks from June 1940 onwards put paid to that idea. The out-and-out involvement of the entire nation into the war meant that all music was to serve in its needs, and that also included types of music that had already gained a significantly broader presence in U. Howard Sarty, Letters of Howard Sarty, 1942-1945. Students begin sharing their responses with the class. From the summer of 1942, Germany's problems on the Eastern Front caused unease about the likelihood of a German victory in the war.
By 1935, roughly two-thirds of American households owned a radio. Oral History Group Study In groups of three, students discuss the information presented in Ms. European Journal of Communication, 2 1 , 53-80. As with German musical exchanges, these events became a forum for political engagement, including speeches from senior government spokespeople and fundraising both for the war effort and to support the government. European Journal of Communication, 2 1 , 53-80.