All the formed elements of the blood arise by differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. List and briefly explain the most common types of mechanical injury hazards. These functions are illustrated in the two panels below. Each lymphocyte that is produced is dealt 5-6 of these at random, and the 5-6 genes can be shuffled into any order before they are spliced together. Please study all presentation slides frequently and repeatedly. Similar competitions occur between the microbiota and potential pathogens on the skin, in the upper respiratory tract, and in the gastrointestinal tract.
However, during the maturation process in the thymus gland, those lymphocytes are induced to undergo apoptosis programmed cell death , and they are permanently eliminated. These two cytokines have many functions including the ability to reset the body's thermostat and cause fever. What scientific evidence was presented to disprove the theory? Activation results in a cascade affect where one protein activates the next. Treatment with antibiotics can significantly deplete the normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract, providing an advantage for pathogenic bacteria to colonize and cause diarrheal infection. Lymphocytes in the Adaptive Immune System Deficient Immunity There are a number of conditions that cause deficient immune responses. Types of Immunity: There are two major types of immunity: innate or natural or nonspecific and acquired or adaptive. In chronic inflammation, macrophages and T-cells become the predominate cell types.
Blood banks will match donor and recipient blood types to minimize incompatibilities, because transfusion of incompatible blood can result in destruction of the transfused blood cells and a sever transfusion reaction. Instead, they stimulate adjacent cells to produce substances that inhibit the replication of viruses in those cells. Not only do they provide immune protection for the tissue in which they reside but they also support normal function of their neighboring tissue cells through the production of cytokines. One compound has to give electron and oxidizes and another compound has to accept electron and reduces. Platelets are active in blood clotting and they are rich in inflammatory mediators.
Respiratory burst: Oxygen-dependent, myeloperoxidase-independent reactions B. What is a Nonspecific Immune Response Nonspecific immune response refers to the immediate protective response of the immune system which does not require a previous exposure to the antigen. Secondly, the form of contemporary. Sets the stage for tissue repai B. Lactoferrin and transferrin By binding iron, an essential nutrient for bacteria, these proteins limit bacterial growth. The diagrams below are sketches of some of the following functions. Instead, there is unbridled inflammation within tissues and key organs.
Figure 2 provides an overview of the various types of formed elements, including their relative numbers, primary function, and lifespans. Cells are constantly turning over cell proteins, removing old ones and replacing them with new ones. They were renowned for their unblemished skin. At the same time, inflammatory mediators increase the permeability of the local vasculature, causing leakage of fluid into the interstitial space, resulting in the swelling, or edema, associated with inflammation. Cells such as , , , , mast cells, and dendritic cells serve as , which destroy the pathogens inside tissues. Biology 130 Ch 17: Adaptive Immunity Match the following types of cells and signaling molecules with their functions.
They are motile and phagocytic in nature and engulf bacteria and cellular debris. It is important to note that inflammation does not have to be initiated by an infection, but can also be caused by tissue injuries. The process not only brings fluid and cells into the site to destroy the pathogen and remove it and debris from the site, but also helps to isolate the site, limiting the spread of the pathogen. It is the third line defense of the body, which activates due to the failure of the innate immune system to destroy the pathogen. Innate responses can be caused by a variety of cells, mediators, and antibacterial proteins such as complement. Since pathogens may replicate intracellularly viruses and some bacteria and parasites or extracellularly most bacteria, fungi and parasites , different components of the immune system have evolved to protect against these different types of pathogens. In a blood smear taken from a healthy patient, which type of leukocyte would you expect to observe in the highest numbers? Adaptive Acquired Immunity Cells of the lymphatic or lymphoid system provide adaptive immunity, which, unlike innate immunity, is highly specific in its ability to recognize and defend against specific foreign agents using both cellular weapons e.
Titration is used to determine the. The cells have hair-like projections cilia that beat rhythmically. One of the most abundant components of basophil granules is histamine, which is released along with other chemical factors when the basophil is stimulated. Their life span is about 10 to 20 hours. Types of T-cells and their Functions: 1. Write, Read To use Remote Desktop, the computer you access remotely can be running Windows 7 Home Premium or Windows 7 Professional. Movement due to cilia or peristalsis helps to keep air passages and the gastrointestinal tract free from microorganisms.
Complement is an immune response that marks pathogens for destruction and makes holes in the cell membrane of the pathogen. Which of the following distinguish the field of microbiology from other fields of biology? Chemical factors Fatty acids in sweat inhibit the growth of bacteria. New York: Garland Science; 2002. Body temperature, pH of the body fluids and various body secretions prevent growth of many disease causing microorganisms. This strategy is in stark contrast to the approach used by the adaptive immune system, which uses large numbers of different receptors, each highly specific to a particular pathogen. Explain why it is advantageous for the immune system to have cells that can kill human cells as well as pathogens. For example, the endothelial cells that line blood vessels have very tight cell-to-cell junctions, blocking microbes from gaining access to the bloodstream.