The ruling class mosca. The myth of the ruling class : Gaetano Mosca and the : with the first English translation of the final version of The theory of the ruling class, foreword 1962 (Book, 1980) [momentumclubs.org] 2019-01-10

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The Ruling Class by Gaetano Mosca

the ruling class mosca

The aborigines of Tasmania vanished in that way. Ruling classes, whether democratic or aristocratic, which keep in power by systematically favoring the interests of private individuals or small organized minorities at the expense of the public are always the most costly. We refer to mimetism, to that great psychological force whereby every individual is wont to adopt the ideas, the beliefs, the sentiments that are most current in the environment in which he has grown up. This exclusion makes a liberal system look very much like masked autocratic rule by a narrowly limited class of people - at times by a few powerful or virtually omnipotent families. A similar system is expounded and defended in Campanella's City of the Sun. Patriotism, therefore, has been left as the chief factor of moral and intellectual cohesion within the various countries of Europe. The religious wars, the Holy League, the falling of two kings under the assassin's dagger, are facts which have not yet acquired the mystery of ancientness - eyewitnesses of them cannot be rare.


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Gaetano Mosca

the ruling class mosca

He thought of the nineteenth century as representing a transitional period between a world of inequality, which was coming to an end, and a world of equality, which was about to dawn. A scant thirty-seven years have passed since the wife of Marshal d'Ancre was burned at the stake as a witch. That instinct underlies the ancient Christian persecutions, and the old religious wars. It is interesting that in the Republic Plato proposed abolishing the family as an almost necessary consequence of the abolition of private property. I lost count of how many pages I've highlighted. As we often see, when that is not possible, not even a sequence of sufferings, of terrible trials born of experiences more terrible still, is enough to disenchant a people; or, more exactly, discouragement rather than disillusionment settles upon that people. The bureaucratic system here in question would not be like any of the various forms of representative government.

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Mosca's Machiavellian theory of the Ruling Class

the ruling class mosca

The grave and far-reaching consequences of the World War, during which each of the contending nations strained its capacities to the utmost, are now too familiar to need minute description. Now the most commonplace experience suffices to assure one that things do not go in that way at all. Dye's thesis is further expanded upon in his works: The Irony of Democracy, Politics in America, Understanding Public Policy, and Who's Running America?. The deity held the guardianship of the empire. When a people has long been ruled by a closed or semiclosed aristocracy, almost inevitably a group spirit, a sense of caste, arises and asserts itself, so that the members of the aristocracy {p. But we do not think that even provisions as radical as these would suffice to establish in the world an absolute justice that will never be realized, but which will always be appealed to by those who are trying to upset the system of social rankings that {p. It does not prevent whole legislatures and considerable numbers of national congressmen from feeling the influence of powerful corporations and great financiers.


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Gaetano Mosca

the ruling class mosca

Not only was the indulgence of examiners often bought with money. Elite theory opposes , a tradition that assumes that all individuals, or at least the multitude of social groups, have equal power and balance each other out in contributing to democratic political outcomes representing the emergent, aggregate will of society. The government itself sometimes sold the various academic degrees and allowed ignorant persons, often from the lowest social strata, to hold public office. Once this transformation has taken place, wealth produces political power just as political power has been producing wealth. All civil and military powers were exercised in the name of the sovereign by a large body of officials, who were chosen ordinarily from the notables belonging to the race that had founded the empire.

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Elite theory

the ruling class mosca

In European and Asiatic Turkey, Turks, Greeks, Armenians, Jews and Levantines live together in the same cities. It may have no other motive than a disinterested passion for widening to some extent the confines of the known at the expense of the unknown. Many mountaineers or sailors are by nature timid men, yet they face unmoved, the ones the dangers of the precipice, the others the perils of the storm at sea. In the course of this evolution, around the year 1333, King Casimir the Great tried vainly to curb the overbearing insolence of the warriors. Instead, he chose to follow in the way of the old prophet who had set out to pronounce a curse and instead was moved to utter a blessing.

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The myth of the ruling class : Gaetano Mosca and the : with the first English translation of the final version of The theory of the ruling class, foreword 1962 (Book, 1980) [momentumclubs.org]

the ruling class mosca

But that is one of the points - so numerous in all the other sciences - where the first impression one has of things is contrary to what they are in reality. This same sort of claim has come forward in our time in scientific trappings. In order to keep inflences from Europe out of China the emperor Yung Cheng, who reigned between 1723 and 1735, drove out the missionaries. In the case in point, what the uninitiate calls laziness - {p. They have a tendency, that is, to remain at the point and in the state in which they find themselves.

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Mosca's Machiavellian theory of the Ruling Class

the ruling class mosca

They were exempt from agricultural duties, yet they received their share of the produce of the soil, along with the other members of the community. Among peoples that have recently entered the agricultural stage and are relatively civilized, it is the unvarying fact that the strictly military class is the political, or ruling, class. They don't make 'em like they used to! But we must not forget, either, that t he children of Israel have always lived spiritually apart from the peoples among whom they dwelt, and therefore have always been in a special environment. The fact is constant, but the forms it may assume, in one set of circumstances or another, vary considerably. Susie is a first-year college student. He asserts, much like Hunter, that an elite class that owns and manages large income-producing properties like banks and corporations dominate the American power structure politically and economically.

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The Ruling Class by Gaetano Mosca

the ruling class mosca

Patriotism, too, has generally been combated by socialism as an invention that the ruling classes have devised to prevent the union of the proletarians of all the world against the bourgeoisie of all the world which had been foretold by Marx. Yet aristocracies that cannot defend themselves adequately from idleness decline rapidly. In the second place, if the Celts lost their language over the major part of Great Britain, they were by no means exterminated. The rulers of a collectivist state pile economic power on politcal power and so, controlling the lots of all individuais and all families, have a thousand ways of distributing rewards punishments. On the other hand, after a series of disturbances and changes, the enthusiasm and faith that political innovators and political novelties have inspired tends to fall off considerably, and a vague feeling of skepticism and fatigue spreads through the masses.

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The Ruling Class

the ruling class mosca

In the United States all powers flow directly or indirectly from popular elections, and suffrage is equal for all men and women in all the states of the {p. The Comparative Study of Political Elites. Perhaps some time before the day of Sargon, Menes, founder of the first Egyptian dynasty, had welded the little states, into which upper and lower Egypt had previously been sub- {p. We possess an Egyptian document that summarizes the life of a high army {p. That is another way of asking whether democracy is more economical for a society than aristocracy. It may be the noblest form of human labor. The majority of his distinguished colleagues, Mosca knew well, had already made up their minds to vote for the insidious measure and thus to make true the Roman proverb: ruere in servitutem, to volunteer for slavery.

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