Watershed planning serves as a tool to better leverage the resources of local governments, state and federal agencies, and non-governmental organizations. For the purpose of this paper, we define integrated watershed management as an adaptive, integrated, and multidisciplinary systems approach to management that aims to preserve productivity and ecosystem integrity regarding the water, soil, plants, and animals within a watershed, thereby protecting and restoring ecosystem services for environmental, social, and economic benefit. To address these questions, we discuss the process of developing integrated watershed management strategies for sustainable management through the incorporation of adaptive management techniques and traditional ecological knowledge. Therefore, as well as being a useful unit for physical analyses, it can also be a suitable socioeconomic-political unit for management planning and implementation. Many less developed countries, and some developed countries, are now finding that supply-side solutions alone are not adequate to address the ever increasing demands from demographic, economic and climatic pressures; waste-water treatment, water recycling and demand management measures are being introduced to counter the challenges of inadequate supply. In this paper, we explore the following questions: How has watershed management evolved? All the major components for watershed management are now offered online, which should facilitate well developed watershed management strategies.
The integration of remote sensing imagery, geographical information systems, global positioning systems, meta-analysis approaches, and computer simulation models, as well as access to large databases have provided explicit interfaces for decision makers, communities, public interest groups, and other stakeholders to interact with each other. Although it is not a common approach for evaluating hydrology, an analysis of its usefulness indicates that it is a promising approach for integrating results from several studies Locatelli and Vignola. However, it is evident that success emerges when integrated watershed management is utilized to address the complexity of the social, economic, environmental, and cross-jurisdictional issues through the involvement of industry, local communities, and environmental organizations with government decision-making bodies. Appropriate vegetation prevents rainwater and soil to run away from the region. This situation increased recognition of the significance of and need for a holistic, ecosystem-based, multiple-use approach to land stewardship. The provincial government has proposed the Poyang Lake hydraulic project, which would involve damming the river linking Poyang Lake to the Yangtze River to control lake area and volume, increase development and management of water resources, and conserve protected areas in the watershed Finlayson et al. The premise of this concept is that many water quality and ecosystem problems are best prioritized, addressed, and solved at the watershed level rather than at the individual waterbody level.
To successfully develop and implement an integrated watershed management strategy under various conditions, there needs to be clear goals and objectives based on sound science that consider all elements within the watershed and how they will change temporally, while accounting for the needs and opinions of the public and stakeholders. Pink salmon also declined by 75 % at this time due to fishing pressure Ferguson et al. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme: The Act was notified on 7 September 2005 and is aimed at providing livelihood security through employment for the rural poor. Clearly stormwater management needs to include volume control. The watershed planning process uses a series of cooperative, iterative steps to characterize existing conditions, identify and prioritize problems, define management objectives, and develop and implement protection or remediation strategies as necessary.
Useful tools are identified to support the planning process in each step. Link to Better Site Design is used as an all-inclusive term that includes low impact development, sustainable development, design with nature or any other approach to consistent with the treatment train design philosophy. The Programme imposes a responsibility on sub-national governments to create these facilities in a transparent and accountable manner. Big data is beneficial as it can dramatically reduce the cost and time dedicated to computing tasks Davenport and Dyché. They have been largely successful, although some targets have not been met.
Widely expand public participation Key factors that determine the success of watershed management include the degree of public input, contribution of local knowledge, democratic decision-making processes, and whether all the stakeholders can be brought together in planning and implementing watershed development strategies. There has been increasing recognition that public participation can lead to better management of common resources. Industries should use technology that prevents contamination of water. Multi-level social-ecological system analysis There have been several advances in analytical models for watershed management. Further development of these tools will be beneficial, as they have the potential to generate better understanding of environmental feedbacks and make use of the increased availability of watershed simulation models Mysiak et al. This tool is a web-based mapping program that can be applied to any watershed within the state Shi et al. Although progress has been made in watershed management strategies, there are still numerous issues impeding successful management outcomes; many of which can be remedied through holistic management approaches, incorporation of cutting-edge science and technology, and cross-jurisdictional coordination.
Integrating the management of water in all its forms — drinking water, , wastewater and source water— is the only way to solve our current and future water challenges. The same could be said for groundwater pump-outs that discharge contaminated groundwater into any surface water or onto any land surface. Accounting for the impacts of climate change in large-scale watershed A key component of future watershed management will be to account for the potential impacts of climate change. Although not universally true, advancement in the state of the art for rate control practices generally came about as urbanization increased and greater protection from water leaving these largely impervious places was needed. Good watershed management helps to prepare the environment against man-made activities of logging and mining, as well as against natural calamities like floods and landslides. Rhine River basin Location and issues The Rhine River flows from its source in Switzerland 1320 km through France, Germany, and the Netherlands to the North Sea, encompassing a catchment area of 170,000 km 2 that includes parts of Italy, Austria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, and Belgium Dieperink ; Frijters and Leentvaar Fig.
As a result of this and several other factors, the surface area of Poyang Lake has been drastically reduced over the last few decades Liu et al. Additionally, one cannot assume that there were similar conditions within the watershed pre- and post-implementation of management strategies, so the necessary data must be available for impact evaluations. Models can also be used to understand how climate change will impact salmon migration and spawning Rand et al. Routing water to low-lying sump areas where it can soak in, placing planter boxes or grated inlets for watering trees, and contouring slopes to reduce runoff velocity are all variations on the landscaping theme. Sustainable watershed management: an international multi-watershed case study. The traditional fragmented approach is no longer viable and a more holistic approach to water management is essential.
Although many parts of the concept have been around for several decades - in fact since the first global water conference in Mar del Plata in 1977 - it was not until after Agenda 21 and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 1992 in Rio that the concept was made the object of extensive discussions as to what it means in practice. Poyang Lake has naturally high seasonal variability in lake volume and area, with the outflow from Poyang Lake being controlled by the interaction with the Yangtze River Liu et al. Simple contained storage directly connected to buildings or impervious areas are effective volume reducers and provide an opportunity for water re-use, such as irrigation. Further investigation into the effects of the dam on factors such as water quality, biodiversity, and disease spread are essential. As the agriculture productivity has stabilised in assured irrigated areas, the rainfed areas of the country assume more significance because of its potential for enhancement in productivity by successful implementation of watershed development programme. This will involve revisiting the initially outlined strategies to determine if they need to be improved, and continuously incorporating new technology and knowledge into the management framework Heathcote. Technological advancements have significantly contributed to this well-rounded approach.
It provides a systematic process for decision-making by comparing multiple competing criteria and alternatives, including situations involving subjective judgements, to select the best watershed plan. In the first step, the implementing agency, whether it is private, governmental, academic, etc. The best way to protect resources is on a watershed basis using an integrated watershed management approach. Major Flagship programmes of the Government of India are: Bharat Nirman: The objective of the Bharat Nirman Programme is to give top priority to rural infrastructure by setting time-bound goals under various schemes to develop rural housing, rural roads, irrigation, rural drinking water and rural electrification. A convention would provide the necessary framework for such specific agreements. Some countries such as China have already dedicated themselves to increasing their capacity to cope with climate change—expanding technology research and development and improving adaptive capacity of key sectors such as water resources to climate change—and other countries need to follow suite. Internet Several government organizations, institutions, and universities have made tools, data, and educational information regarding watersheds easily accessible through the Internet.